Over thousands of years of civilization migration serves an integral part of the lives of peoples way of being human in a changing reality. In the earliest stages of its development man as an intelligent being moved in order to survive in the new land, thereby responding to the depletion of flora and fauna, the process of increasing the population in a given area. In hunting tribes such overcrowding was manifested in a fierce fight for the hunting grounds. In terms of community ownership existence of each individual, the family depended on the possession of a certain amount of land. So, if in excess of the ancient civilization of this limit led to the forced emigration of free citizens by sea to new lands, and the tribes of Asia, are pastoralists who demanded a vast space for each member of the tribe - the invasion of the states of the ancient world, in the Middle Ages in Europe it took the form of wars between communities over land ownership. An important event that affected the mobility and distribution of the population on earth was the formation of national states. Their duties included the save function in a society a certain level of life, ethnic and cultural integrity, border control to limit the influx of foreigners. In a sense, migration has created mankind itself: having arisen in one or more locations, the person in the process of migration to populate and mastered the entire current oecumene, namely migration led to the current diversity of earthlings and facilitated the placement of the population both in global and regional, and local scales . Moreover, this kind of permanent displacement of large masses of people is a sign of persistent breach and restore the balance in the system of social relations, an important factor in the social system of self-regulation. It is well known that the great migration of peoples (IV-VII centuries. AD) marked a major social revolution in European history has been for the majority of the peoples of the continent's edge between antiquity and the Middle Ages. In this case, the collapse of the ancient world can be assessed in different ways, on the one hand, this act of historical drama led to gigantic universal human and cultural losses and drove civilization in Europe a few centuries ago, the other - the early medieval sociocultural community formed the foundation for the subsequent development of the European branch of humanity largely determined the current economic, social and cultural profile of the planet. In medieval Europe, population movements took place, as a rule, from the areas affected by famine and epidemics. The great geographical discoveries XV-XVII centuries. caused migration flows from Portugal, Spain, then England, France, Holland, Ireland, mainly in America. During the colonization of the indigenous population was wiped out vast areas of the continent, large-scale immigration has reached a violent African population in America, accompanied by massive loss of enslaved people. Total colonial powers before 1850 were brought from Africa to work on the plantations of America about 15 million slaves. The volume of migration has increased dramatically in the era of industrialization of the bourgeois states. The first massive international flow of migrants at the beginning of the XIX century. was the movement of the rural population of Ireland to the UK. During the period from 1834 to 1937. More than 30 million people transported to Britain from the Indian subcontinent to work in their colonies. Significant migration flows associated with the relocation of Europeans for permanent residence in the open researchers and enslaved their armies distant countries. Thus, only region 1846-1924. in overseas colonies moved about 50 million Europeans. In line with global trends happening mastering a huge part of the Eurasian continent, where in XIX century. ended with the creation of the Russian Empire. The history of internal migration in Russia, associated with the settlement of the country, at every historical stage had specific features, but in general, characterized by relative stability in the directions. Thus, in the IX-XII centuries. Slavic population of ancient Russia gradually populating the area in the basin of the Oka, Upper Volga, the North. In XIII-XV centuries. increased movement to the north and north-east Europe. Began in the XVI century. steady and centrifugal migration process entailed the transfer of population to the south of the center of the original Russian state. Hence, the population has gone diverse streams in the New Russia, the Caucasus, the Volga and further beyond the Caspian Sea, especially in the Urals, in Siberia to the Pacific coast. The peculiarity of the resettlement movement of that time was the development of almost uninhabited areas: the East - the Middle Volga and Volga, southern Siberia, in the South-East - the territories of Central Asia, the South - "Wild Field" from the Lower Volga region to Moldova. About the time of mass migration is evidenced by such data - if the second half of the XVII century. in the age-old Russian regions were concentrated around 9/10 Russian population, by 1917 - a little less than half. Further expansion of the territory of Russia due to the successful struggle for access to the Baltic Sea at the end of XVII - beginning of XVIII century. and the base is the new capital of the Russian Empire - St. Petersburg (1703) Very attractive to migrants looked immense land of Siberia, but the process of its settlement, which began in the XVI century., Was impulsive and increased only in the 40s. XIX century. In the 80-ies. the region in terms of resettlement movement ahead of even the North Caucasus - in the Tomsk region began to arrive more migrants than in the Kuban. Even more resettlement in Siberia has increased after the construction of Trans-Siberian Railway and the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER) in the years 1897-1903. In the post-reform years has increased the migration movement in Kazakhstan and parts of Central Asia. The influx of population to Siberia, the Far East, Central Asia and Kazakhstan was significant to the 70s. XX century. In Soviet times it is associated with industrialization and collectivization of the peasantry economic regions, repression and deportation of some people, the development of new land for agriculture. At the end of the Great Patriotic War began intensive migration to the Baltic, Western Ukraine and Belarus, Kaliningrad region, Western Karelia, the Kuril Islands and southern Sakhalin. Feature of migration in Russia has always been the predominance of them Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian population. The total size of resettlement, such as Russian to new lands outside the Russian Federation after the formation of its national borders within the USSR can be seen from the following data. In 1926, there lived 6219 thousand ethnic Russian, in 1979 - 23,875 people, or their number has increased by 3.8 times (at this time the total number of Russian in the Soviet Union has increased only by 1.7 times). However, since the mid 60's. situation began to change: the demographic resources become depleted earlier developed regions, Central and North-West regions of Russia, experiencing labor shortages, have turned into a powerful attracting area. Since that time, the main direction of migration in the Soviet Union began to get the centripetal orientation, which was already firmly established in the second half of the 70th. During this period, Russian citizens have "lost" the Caucasus and later - Central Asia. This was facilitated by the agrarian resettlement, fierce competition in the labor market, a rapidly growing layer of skilled indigenous nationalities. Under counter the influence of these push factors and taking into account the favorable situation on the Russian labor market in 80 years. sharply intensified movement in Russia, not only Russian, but also the indigenous population of non-Slavic republics. Yet by 1989, lived outside the RSFSR 25289 thousand ethnic Russian, or 17.4% of the total population in the country. In many ways, in a similar situation were to the early 90-ies. many other peoples of the Soviet Union - outside their titular republics, ie in other ethnic environment lived 5.8 million Ukrainians (13.8%), Belarusians 1.9 (20%), 1.9 Uzbeks (15.1%), 1,4 Armenians (34.4%), 1.3 Kazakhs (19.3%), 0.8 Azerbaijanis (14%), 0.7 Tajiks (22.8%), 0.44 million Moldovans (14.9%), etc. The collapse of the Soviet Union, followed by ethnic conflict, systemic economic crisis and declining living standards, on the one hand, the liberalization of the labor and housing markets and a shift to a policy of "open doors" - the other, led to the curtailment of migration in the former Allied powers, contrary to popular belief a sharp increase in migration in recent years. The population chose to ride out the "Time of Troubles", remaining in their usual places of residence, and this is most characteristic of the indigenous population. At the same time, representatives of non-indigenous nationalities, especially Russian, voluntarily or involuntarily pulled back home. In 1997, the Russian migration turnover (total sum of arrivals and departures) was 42 per 10 thousand population compared to 39 in 1993 and 86 in 1989. Total net migration losses of non-Slavic republics of the former USSR in 1990-1996. estimated at about five million people, of whom 1.2 million have left the borders of the former Soviet Union, and 3.1 million - to the Russian Federation. Changed not only the volume but also the nature of migration: a proliferation of forms of forced, there were refugees. The total number of refugees and internally displaced persons in 1998 reached 1,192 thousand people who came mainly from Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan. About three-quarters of them are Russian, 7.6% - Tatars, 6.7% - the Armenians, 5.9% - Ossetians, 3.4% - Ukrainians. For the regulation of migration processes in the country carried out a series of measures, including improved legislation, developed federal and regional migration programs to address migration issues are widely involved scientists, politicians, journalists and the public at large, international organization.
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